On recent visits to Florence – and not so recent – I have tended to avoid the Cathedral, taking it for granted as it’s so dominant in the still medieval surrounding streets, so full of tourists, and so well known. But one of the benefits of going to the Museo del Duomo is that it forces one to engage with the Cathedral as a historical artefact, the product of well over a century of construction, beginning with Arnolfo di Cambio in 1296 (the first stone was laid on 9 September 1296). In 1334, Giotto was appointed to oversee its construction, which led to the building of the campanile, and he was succeeded by Andrea Pisano. By 1418, only the dome remained to be built.
I also took photographs from the terrace on the top of the Museo del Duomo:-